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11 September 2014
Pregnancy Follow Up

Pregnancy Follow Up

A to Z of Pregnancy Assessment and Observation and Laboratory Tests; Ideally, a woman should see a gynaecologist and have an examination before pregnancy. However, unfortunately, very few women see us, specialists, before pregnancy.

Yet, what needs to be done during pregnancy is listed below on a weekly basis

 

Pregnancy Follow Up Week by Week

First visit: 6-8 weeks

First of all, pregnancy is diagnosed via ? -HCG or urine pregnancy tests. On their first pregnancy visit candidate mothers go through a check-up.

  • o Ultrasound (preferably transvaginal)
  • o Blood type, Rh
  • o Full blood count
  • o Blood biochemistry
  • o TORCH screen
  • o Full urine test, urine culture – antibiogram (if required)
  • o Cervicovaginal smear test (PAP smear test)
  • o Bleeding profile
  • o Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, AI

Posted in Pregnancy and Birth by Dr Mürüde | Tags: ,
24 August 2014
menopause

The exact definition is the end of menstruation and “the age of menopause” refers to the time a woman has ovulation for the last time. The Menopause In women, the end of the period owing to menopause is a sign that the ovaries have lost their function and hormones are not produced any longer. Contrary to common belief, it is the end of functioning of the ovaries not the uterus. Hormone and egg (oocyte) production cannot be done in the ovaries. Due to insufficient estrogen and progesterone hormone production, ovulation (menstruation) does not take place.

What is the average age for menopause?

While 50 is the generally accepted average for it, ages 45-50 are accepted as normal. Although there are many causes that determine the start of menopause, the most important causes are genetic factors. Additionally, excessive smoking might also lead to early menopause.

What are Premenopause and Postmenopause?

The time period ri

13 August 2014
Ovarian Cysts

Ovarian Cysts

What is a cyst?

In brief cyst is the general name given to tiny sacs filled with fluid. They are separated from the tissue they form on by a layer called “cyst wall”. They can be, simply, classified into two; benign (dysfunctional) and cancerous (neoplastic) cysts. Most women may encounter cysts in their ovaries in some part of their lives. Cysts in the ovaries do not usually show any symptoms but are recognized during routine gynaecological examination. Ovaries house a variety of different cells in their system due to their embryologic origins. That’s why they are different than all other organs of the body. Another important feature of the ovaries is the fact that they are responsive to hormonal effects. Depending on different hormones, ovaries may become larger or turn into forming cysts.

How do cysts form?

No cell in our body is permanent. While some cells die, others are produced. And all cells produce a variety an

9 August 2014
Labiaplasty - Labioplasty

Labiaplasty

Today, women pay attention to their outer look and beauty in all aspects; they do not refrain from surgical procedures which may help them feel more comfortable and content. In recent years, the main purpose, usually, in having a genital cosmetic surgery is to get rid of possible undesired structural deformations due to enlargening of the vaginal area after giving birth and to feel good mentally. For some women, having asymmetrical or large (aka elephant ears) labia minor (inner vaginal lips) by birth, can lead to some psychological and functional issues. In addition to permanent elongated labia minora in the vaginal area, another issue leading to discontent is “Episiotomy” that is a surgical incision during labor. Excessive scar tissue, which develops around the incision area while healing, might prevent both the male and female partners from having satisfaction and it may turn an intercouse into a painful experience for women. Besides, prolapse of the urinary bladder and rectum (the last section of the in

Posted in Gynecology by Dr Mürüde | Tags: ,
1 August 2014
Sexual Anorexia

Sexual Anorexia

Classification of Women’s Sexual Dysfunctions (according to DSM-IV diagnosis criteria)

  • 1) Sexual Desire Disorders
       1a) Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorders
       1b) Sexual Repulsion
  • 2) Sexual Arousal Disorder
  • 3) Orgasm Disorders
  • 4) Sexual Pain Disorders

4a) Dyspareunia (pain in intercourse) 4b) Vaginismus Sexual desire is the urge in men and women to have intercourse his/her sexual partner. Sexual desire is an important matter in terms of sexual health. Sexually explicit dreaming, fantasising. Interest in erotic materials often accompanies the urge to have intercourse a the partner. Sexual desire can also be aroused as a result of auditory, visual, olfactory, tactile, gustative perception. Sexual desire and urge can be found in any human being who is physical healthy and free of any hormonal disorder. Sexual Anorexia is a pathological loss of “appetite” for romantic/sexual int

30 June 2014
Vaginismus

Vaginismus can be treated totally today. Moreover, the treatment takes only a few days not months or years as it used to be. Vagina is the female sexual organ. Vaginismus is when vaginal muscles (especially Pubococcocygeus (PC) muscles) contract involuntarily causing spasms in the vaginal area during intercourse, which prevents sexual penetration or makes it too difficult. You’re not alone!.. Vaginismus is a common sexual problem world-wide known to gynaecologists and mental health specialists. In our country, every 2 out of 10 women experience problems regarding sexual intercourse with their partners.

How do involuntary spasms occur?

Vaginismus patients do not only have spasms around the entrance of the vagina but also in other muscles of the body such as the ones in the abdomen, back, waist and legs. Thus, these people may experience strong muscle pain the following day of the intercourse. The wider the range of muscl

27 June 2014
Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

(OHSS, Extensive (hyper) stimulation of the ovaries)

OHSS is a condition which may happen during IVF (In vitro fertilization) or intrauterine insemination (iui) treatment when the ovaries over react to medication for ovulation induction.

What does the intensity of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome depend on?

The intensity of OHSS is in direct proportion with the number of follicles grown and estradiol hormone levels in the serum.

How can ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome intensity be classified?

OHSS can be divided into three groups: mild, moderate and severe.

Mild and Moderate OHSS:

I

Posted in Gynecology by Dr Mürüde | Tags: ,
16 June 2014
Repeatitive Pregnancy Loss

Repetitive pregnancy loss , or “habitual abortion” in medical literature, is a condition in which there are at least two consequent spontaneous miscarriages during the first 3 months of pregnancy. Approximately, 2% of couples have this problem. The diagnosis and treatment of this condition is one of the hardest subjects for reproductive medicine. Miscarriage (abortion) is the most common complication of pregnancy. Actually, sometimes women may experience miscarriages accompanying menstrual bleeding without even noticing that they have been pregnant; “missed miscarriage”. Thus, not every fertilization results in a healthy pregnancy. Sometimes there is fertilization, however, the fertilized material doesn’t implant (attach) inside the womb and it is discharged during menstrual bleeding. This condition can only be noticed by pregnancy tests. We call it “chemical pregnancy”.

Causes of Recurrent Miscarriages

  • 1. Structural malfunctions of the uterus and cervix insufficiency

7 June 2014
Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a peculiar cell layer lining within the uterus, named as ‘endometrium’, of which is built-up after end of menstruation to provide an environment for pregnancy, and in the case of non-pregnancy it is discharged as a menstrual bleeding due to lack of sufficient hormonal support. This cell layer is located only inside of the uterus. Presence of these cells elsewhere than uterus is defined as “endometriosis” disease. This instance is frequently seen in ovaries, rectouterine excavation (pouch of Douglas), between outer surfaces of the uterus or intestines, on the intestines, over or around the tubes or over cervical ligaments and bladder, or surfaces of peritoneum. Endometriosis focuses experience same changes which hormones causes throughout menstrual period and bleeding and discharge will seen in these cells during this menstrual period. Inflammatory defensive cells oriented towards restraining the bleeding within ventral cavity will surround the endometriosis focuses. A proc

26 May 2014
The Hymen

Hymen has some kind of sociological importance at various levels in almost all societies. Especially, in Muslim countries because it is seen as a criteria whether the female has had sexual intercourse before or not, it gains more importance.
Types of hymen shapesTypes of hymen shapes :

 

Annular hymen (Round circle)

The shape of the hymen is round (circular) and there is a circular hole in the middle. If the hole is large enough, the membrane might not rupture even if the penis passes through. In that case it is said that “the hymen is ready for entry”. The statement elastic membrane is also used. This is the most common hymen shape (60-95%).

Crescentic Hymen

The hy