Gynecology arşivleri -

Sperm Donation Therapy

3 June 2016

Sperm Donation TherapyWe suggest that you should contact us 2 months before the date you want the therapy. The steps that will be applied on Sperm Donation Therapy are performed respectively as indicated below. The therapy period for expectant mother initiates with the usage of injections that promotes the ovum, and the monitorization of that period is conducted by ultrasound controls. There is no need to be in our center for these checks, it is possible to handle these procedures in current city. The injection usage period of the expectant mother lasts for 15 days. After the end of the usage period of that medication, expectant mother should come to our center for harvesting the ovum. It’s not necessary to have the expectant father in our center in this situation. After harvesting process expectant mother should return on the same day. Also upon request, expectant mother may stay after the harvesting procedure until the day (2 days later) that transfer will occur on Cyprus. Expectant mother should come to our center for transfer procedure 2 days after the ovum harvesting procedure. In this pe

Posted in Gynecology by Dr Mürüde | Tags: ,
24 August 2014

The exact definition is the end of menstruation and “the age of menopause” refers to the time a woman has ovulation for the last time. The Menopause In women, the end of the period owing to menopause is a sign that the ovaries have lost their function and hormones are not produced any longer. Contrary to common belief, it is the end of functioning of the ovaries not the uterus. Hormone and egg (oocyte) production cannot be done in the ovaries. Due to insufficient estrogen and progesterone hormone production, ovulation (menstruation) does not take place.

What is the average age for menopause?

While 50 is the generally accepted average for it, ages 45-50 are accepted as normal. Although there are many causes that determine the start of menopause, the most important causes are genetic factors. Additionally, excessive smoking might also lead to early menopause.

What are Premenopause and Postmenopause?

The time period right before the end of menstruation is called “premenopause” and the period afterwards is called “postmenopause”.

What is climacterium (perimenopause)?

Climacterium”” refers to a period which covers both premenopause and postmenopause periods, and

13 August 2014
Ovarian Cysts

Ovarian Cysts

What is a cyst?

In brief cyst is the general name given to tiny sacs filled with fluid. They are separated from the tissue they form on by a layer called “cyst wall”. They can be, simply, classified into two; benign (dysfunctional) and cancerous (neoplastic) cysts. Most women may encounter cysts in their ovaries in some part of their lives. Cysts in the ovaries do not usually show any symptoms but are recognized during routine gynaecological examination. Ovaries house a variety of different cells in their system due to their embryologic origins. That’s why they are different than all other organs of the body. Another important feature of the ovaries is the fact that they are responsive to hormonal effects. Depending on different hormones, ovaries may become larger or turn into forming cysts.

How do cysts form?

No cell in our body is permanent. While some cells die, others are produced. And all cells produce a variety and amount of fluids. When this fluid, produced in the cells, is more than the amount absorbed, an accumulation of this fluid occurs between the tissues. This abnormal accumulation of excess fluid between tissues is called “oedema/oedema”. These form as swellings in different parts of the body. If thi

9 August 2014
Labiaplasty - Labioplasty


Today, women pay attention to their outer look and beauty in all aspects; they do not refrain from surgical procedures which may help them feel more comfortable and content. In recent years, the main purpose, usually, in having a genital cosmetic surgery is to get rid of possible undesired structural deformations due to enlargening of the vaginal area after giving birth and to feel good mentally. For some women, having asymmetrical or large (aka elephant ears) labia minor (inner vaginal lips) by birth, can lead to some psychological and functional issues. In addition to permanent elongated labia minora in the vaginal area, another issue leading to discontent is “Episiotomy” that is a surgical incision during labor. Excessive scar tissue, which develops around the incision area while healing, might prevent both the male and female partners from having satisfaction and it may turn an intercouse into a painful experience for women. Besides, prolapse of the urinary bladder and rectum (the last section of the intestines before the anus) may cause functional problems regarding intercourse and it might lead to pathological conditions such as incontinence. In severe prolapses there might even be “Prolapsus Uteri” (prolapse of the uterus. In additon to all these physical issues, many women are discontent with

Posted in Gynecology by Dr Mürüde | Tags: ,
1 August 2014
Sexual Anorexia

Sexual Anorexia

Classification of Women’s Sexual Dysfunctions (according to DSM-IV diagnosis criteria)

  • 1) Sexual Desire Disorders
       1a) Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorders
       1b) Sexual Repulsion
  • 2) Sexual Arousal Disorder
  • 3) Orgasm Disorders
  • 4) Sexual Pain Disorders

4a) Dyspareunia (pain in intercourse) 4b) Vaginismus Sexual desire is the urge in men and women to have intercourse his/her sexual partner. Sexual desire is an important matter in terms of sexual health. Sexually explicit dreaming, fantasising. Interest in erotic materials often accompanies the urge to have intercourse a the partner. Sexual desire can also be aroused as a result of auditory, visual, olfactory, tactile, gustative perception. Sexual desire and urge can be found in any human being who is physical healthy and free of any hormonal disorder. Sexual Anorexia is a pathological loss of “appetite” for romantic/sexual interaction, often the result of a fear of intimacy to the point that the person has severe anxiety surrounding sexual activity and emotional aspects. Sexual anorexia could be defined as lack or non-existence long-term sexual fantasies and urge for sexual activity. Sexual anorexia classified into two i

30 June 2014

Vaginismus can be treated totally today. Moreover, the treatment takes only a few days not months or years as it used to be. Vagina is the female sexual organ. Vaginismus is when vaginal muscles (especially Pubococcocygeus (PC) muscles) contract involuntarily causing spasms in the vaginal area during intercourse, which prevents sexual penetration or makes it too difficult. You’re not alone!.. Vaginismus is a common sexual problem world-wide known to gynaecologists and mental health specialists. In our country, every 2 out of 10 women experience problems regarding sexual intercourse with their partners.

How do involuntary spasms occur?

Vaginismus patients do not only have spasms around the entrance of the vagina but also in other muscles of the body such as the ones in the abdomen, back, waist and legs. Thus, these people may experience strong muscle pain the following day of the intercourse. The wider the range of muscle pain, the stronger the condition of vaginismus. In some patients, spasms occur only in the vagina not on other parts of the body and this makes sexual intercourse impossible. Moreover, these spasms, usually, are not noticed by the patient herself but her partner. Partners encountering such spasms,

27 June 2014
Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

(OHSS, Extensive (hyper) stimulation of the ovaries)

OHSS is a condition which may happen during IVF (In vitro fertilization) or intrauterine insemination (iui) treatment when the ovaries over react to medication for ovulation induction.

What does the intensity of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome depend on?

The intensity of OHSS is in direct proportion with the number of follicles grown and estradiol hormone levels in the serum.

How can ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome intensity be classified?

OHSS can be divided into three groups: mild, moderate and severe.

Mild and Moderate OHSS:

In mild and moderate OHSS cases, abdominal bloating, enlarging of the ovaries, sickness, weight gain and abdominal discomfort can be experienced. They are observed in about 10% of cases.

Severe OHSS:

Posted in Gynecology by Dr Mürüde | Tags: ,
16 June 2014
Repeatitive Pregnancy Loss

Repetitive pregnancy loss , or “habitual abortion” in medical literature, is a condition in which there are at least two consequent spontaneous miscarriages during the first 3 months of pregnancy. Approximately, 2% of couples have this problem. The diagnosis and treatment of this condition is one of the hardest subjects for reproductive medicine. Miscarriage (abortion) is the most common complication of pregnancy. Actually, sometimes women may experience miscarriages accompanying menstrual bleeding without even noticing that they have been pregnant; “missed miscarriage”. Thus, not every fertilization results in a healthy pregnancy. Sometimes there is fertilization, however, the fertilized material doesn’t implant (attach) inside the womb and it is discharged during menstrual bleeding. This condition can only be noticed by pregnancy tests. We call it “chemical pregnancy”.

Causes of Recurrent Miscarriages

  • 1. Structural malfunctions of the uterus and cervix insufficiency
  • 2. Hormonal (endocrine) conditions
  • 3. Infections
  • 4. Chromosome disorders
  • 5. Autoimmune diseases
  • 6. Environmental and other factors
1. Structural malfunctions of the uterus and cervix insufficiency

7 June 2014

Endometriosis is a peculiar cell layer lining within the uterus, named as ‘endometrium’, of which is built-up after end of menstruation to provide an environment for pregnancy, and in the case of non-pregnancy it is discharged as a menstrual bleeding due to lack of sufficient hormonal support. This cell layer is located only inside of the uterus. Presence of these cells elsewhere than uterus is defined as “endometriosis” disease. This instance is frequently seen in ovaries, rectouterine excavation (pouch of Douglas), between outer surfaces of the uterus or intestines, on the intestines, over or around the tubes or over cervical ligaments and bladder, or surfaces of peritoneum. Endometriosis focuses experience same changes which hormones causes throughout menstrual period and bleeding and discharge will seen in these cells during this menstrual period. Inflammatory defensive cells oriented towards restraining the bleeding within ventral cavity will surround the endometriosis focuses. A process causes by inflammation will begin in this area. During recovery, cohesions will occur in surrounding cells and this continues repetitively in every menstrual period. Many factors such as transportation of egg within endometriosis tubes, defect in fertilization function, nidation of fertilized em

26 May 2014
The Hymen

Hymen has some kind of sociological importance at various levels in almost all societies. Especially, in Muslim countries because it is seen as a criteria whether the female has had sexual intercourse before or not, it gains more importance.
Types of hymen shapesTypes of hymen shapes :


Annular hymen (Round circle)

The shape of the hymen is round (circular) and there is a circular hole in the middle. If the hole is large enough, the membrane might not rupture even if the penis passes through. In that case it is said that “the hymen is ready for entry”. The statement elastic membrane is also used. This is the most common hymen shape (60-95%).

Crescentic Hymen

The hymen is shaped like a crescent. While the membrane is thinner or maybe even not present, it is distinct at the back. Frequency of observation is between 3.5% to 20%. These types of hymen do not usually rupture during intercourse.

Septate Hymen